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It maintained very close commercial and political relationships with the Thanjavur Nayakar kingdom in southern India as well as the Kandyan and segments of the Kotte kingdom.This period saw the building of Hindu temples in the peninsula and a flourishing of literature, both in Tamil and Sanskrit.The 1980s insurgent uprising led to extensive damage, expulsion of part of the population, and military occupation.Since the end of civil war in 2009, refugees and internally displaced people have started to return to their homes and government and private sector reconstruction has begun. It was made into a colonial port town during the Portuguese occupation of the Jaffna peninsula in 1619 who lost it to the Dutch, only to lose it to the British in 1796.With a population of 88,138, Jaffna is Sri Lanka's 12th largest city.Jaffna is approximately six miles (9.7 kilometres) from Kandarodai which served as an emporium in the Jaffna peninsula from classical antiquity.
The Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) briefly occupied the city in 1987.
Sri Lankan military and police were using the Dutch era fort as their encampment which was surrounded by various Tamil militants groups.
Bombardment from air and land of the city led to damage to civic and civilian properties, death and injury to civilians and destruction the economic potential of the city.
They also built Presbyterian churches and government buildings, most which survived until the 1980s, but suffered damage or destruction during the subsequent civil war.
Britain maintained many of the Dutch mercantile, religious, and taxation policies.
Most Sri Lankan Tamils are Hindus followed by Christians, Muslims and a small Buddhist minority.